Female genital mutilation (FGM), also called ‘female cutting’ or ‘female circumcision’, is defined by the World Health Organisation as any procedure involving the partial or total removal of external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. FGM is illegal in the UK, with a penalty of up to 14 years in prison. Find out what we're doing to prevent FGM, and how to get help if you’ve been affected. 

Types of FGM

FGM can have severe consequences psychologically, emotionally and medically.  It can include extreme pain, shock, infection, haemorrhage, infertility, incontinence, HIV, urinary tract infections, menstrual obstruction, and death.

There are no health benefits to FGM. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of women’s bodies for the rest of their lives.

FGM is classified into four main types:

  • type 1: partial or total removal of the clitoris or clitoral hood
  • type 2: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minor
  • type 3: narrowing of the vaginal opening by creating a covering seal, formed by cutting and sewing over the outer labia
  • type 4: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, stretching or cauterising the genital area

Find out more about the medical aspects of FGM.

FGM and the law

FGM is child abuse and is against the law in the UK. The Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 makes it illegal to:

  • perform FGM in the UK
  • assist or arrange for anyone to carry out FGM abroad on girls who are British Nationals or habitual UK residents
  • assist a girl to carry out FGM on herself

FGM carries a penalty of up to 14 years in prison.

FGM protection orders (FGMPOs)

An FGM protection order (FGMPO) is a civil order used to protect those who are vulnerable to FGM, and prevent it from taking place. It gives the courts flexibility in stipulating conditions around safeguarding the welfare of the protected person. This means a court can put provisions in place to facilitate the safe return of girls who have been taken outside the UK for the purpose of FGM.

An FGMPO can be obtained through three issuing family courts. Breaching an FGMPO can carry a penalty of up to five years in prison.

Warning signs

There are a number of indicators a girl could have been subjected to FGM. Examples can be:

  • significant changes in behaviour
  • absenteeism from school, particularly after a trip to an FGM practising country
  • spending long periods of time out of the classroom
  • spending longer than usual going to the toilet
  • avoiding going to the toilet
  • discomfort when sitting down
  • avoiding physical exercise and PT classes
  • frequent menstrual or urinary infections


Children are often unaware that FGM is going to take place. Unfortunately this means there may be few warning signs before it happens. However, sometimes children are made aware in advance, which can lead to a change in their behaviour, such as seeking advice or help from professionals and friends.

How to report FGM

If you suspect a person of carrying out FGM, or think someone you know has been a victim, or may be soon, visit our How to report possible child abuse page to find a range of ways to get in touch. Alternatively, call the national FGM helpline on 0800 028 3550.

Please note

If you are a regulated professional, such as a health worker, social worker or teacher, you are required by law to report any ‘known’ cases of FGM directly to the police via our non-emergency number 101. If you're deaf or hard of hearing, use our textphone service on 18001 101.

‘Known’ means that you have either visually identified that FGM has been carried out, or you have had direct verbal disclosure from the child affected.

Useful links

The National FGM Centre 

A partnership between Barnardo’s and the Local Government Association (LGA) to improve FGM services.

The Home Office FGM training

A free online course on how to identify and report female genital mutilation.

NHS Choices

Free information on why and where FGM is carried out and the health risks involved.

NSPCC FGM Helpline

A national charity offering advice and free telephone support for children and adults with questions about FGM.

28 Too Many

An international charity working to end FGM through research and local initiatives.

Black Women’s Health and Family Support (BWHAFS)

An organisation promoting the eradication of FGM in the wider context of improving black women’s health.

Daughters of Eve

A charity protecting girls and young women at risk from FGM.

Foundation for Women's Health Research and Development (FORWARD)

A leading African diaspora women's campaign and support organisation tackling discriminatory practices against girls and women.

The Iranian and Kurdish Women’s Rights Organisation (IKWRO)

Charity providing advice, advocacy, referral and support to women and men in the UK in Arabic, Kurdish and Farsi languages.